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30+ Python Interview Questions And Answers

Python is a versatile programming language favored for its ease of learning and wide range of applications, such as web development, data analysis, machine learning, and automation. Understanding Python is essential for many programming jobs, and employers often include questions specific to Python in technical interviews.


Most asked Python interview questions



What are the key features of Python?

Python is known for being an easy-to-read language with a clean syntax. It is dynamic, allowing for rapid development since types don’t need to be declared explicitly. Python is also interpreted, meaning code is executed line by line, which makes debugging easier. It is object-oriented, promoting code reuse, and it has a large standard library.


How do you convert a list into a tuple?

Use the tuple() function to turn a list into a tuple.

 my_list = [1, 2, 3]
my_tuple = tuple(my_list)


What is a dictionary in Python?

A dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. It allows you to store and retrieve elements by referencing a unique key. Dictionaries are mutable and unordered.


Predict the output of this code snippet

 a = [1, 2, 3]
b = a

The output will be [1, 2, 3, 4] because 'b' is referencing the same list object as 'a', and any changes made to 'b' will affect 'a'.


Explain how a function can be called in Python.

A function is called by writing its name followed by parentheses, inside which you pass the arguments the function expects, if any.

 def greet(name):
    return 'Hello ' + name


How do you declare a comment in Python?

Comments begin with a #, and Python will render the rest of the line as a comment:

# This is a comment


What are the different types of operators in Python?

Python contains several types of operators: arithmetic (e.g., +, -, *, /), comparison (e.g., ==, !=, >), assignment (e.g., =, +=), logical (e.g., and, or, not), bitwise (e.g., &, |, ^), membership (e.g., in, not in), and identity operators (e.g., is, is not).


What does the 'len' function do?

The 'len' function returns the number of items in an object. For example, for a list, it will return the number of elements in the list.

 my_list = [1, 2, 3]
length = len(my_list)


What are Python's loop constructs?

Python provides the for and while loops, which are used for iterating over a sequence or executing a block of code multiple times, respectively.


Define a lambda function in Python.

A lambda function is a small anonymous function defined with the lambda keyword. It can take multiple arguments but only has one expression.

 multiply = lambda x, y: x * y


What is list comprehension and give an example?

List comprehension is a concise way to create lists. It consists of brackets containing an expression followed by a 'for' clause, then zero or more 'for' or 'if' clauses.

 squares = [x**2 for x in range(10)]


How would you handle an error in Python?

Use try-except blocks to handle errors. The try block contains code that might cause an error, and the except block contains the code that runs if an error occurs.

    # risky code
except Exception as e:
    # handle error


What are Python modules?

Modules are files containing a set of functions and variables that you can include in your application. You can use 'import' to bring a module into your script.


Guess the output of the following code

 print(8 // 3)

The output will be 2 since '//' is the floor division operator, which divides and returns the integer part of the quotient.


Is Python case sensitive when dealing with identifiers?

Yes, Python is case sensitive. For example, myVariable and myvariable would be recognized as two distinct identifiers in Python.

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Explain the GIL in Python.

GIL stands for Global Interpreter Lock which is a mutex that protects access to Python objects, preventing multiple threads from executing Python bytecodes at once. This lock is necessary because CPython's memory management is not thread-safe.


What are decorators in Python?

A decorator is a design pattern in Python that allows a user to add new functionality to an existing object without modifying its structure. Decorators are usually called before the definition of a function you want to decorate.

def my_function():


Describe the difference between deep and shallow copy.

A shallow copy creates a new object, but inserts references into it to the objects found in the original. In contrast, a deep copy creates a new object and recursively copies all the objects it finds. As a result, the two objects are independent.

 import copy
shallow = copy.copy(original)
deep = copy.deepcopy(original)


Explain the use of 'with' statement in Python.

The 'with' statement is used for resource management and exception handling. It ensures that resources like file streams are properly cleaned up after use, even if an error occurs.

 with open('file.txt', 'r') as file:
    data =


Describe how Python's garbage collection works.

Python uses a form of automatic memory management known as garbage collection, which relies on reference counting and a cyclic garbage collector to clean up unreachable objects.


How do you debug a Python program?

You can use the Python debugger (pdb) to debug a program. It provides interactive debugging tools such as setting breakpoints, stepping through code, inspecting variables, and more.

 import pdb


Explain the use of *args and **kwargs in function definitions.

*args is used for passing a variable number of non-keyword arguments, and **kwargs allows passing a variable number of keyword arguments to a function.

 def func(*args, **kwargs):


Write a Python class that demonstrates encapsulation with private attributes.

 class MyClass:

Encapsulation is accomplished by making attributes or methods private (preceding the name with an underscore).

 class MyClass:
    def __init__(self):
        self.__private_attr = 42
    def get_private_attr(self):
        return self.__private_attr


How do generators work in Python?

Generators are a special type of iterators that generate values on the fly, saving memory. They are created using the 'yield' statement instead of 'return'. When called, it resumes from where it left off.

 def my_generator():
    yield 1
    yield 2
    yield 3


Predict the output of the following code

 def add(x, y):
        return x + y
        return 'Error'
        print('End of function')

print(add(2, 3))

It will print 'End of function' due to the finally block, then it will print 5 which is the output of the function add.


What is metaclass in Python?

A metaclass in Python is a class of a class that defines how a class behaves. A class is an instance of a metaclass. By default, Python uses type as the metaclass from which all new classes are created.


What is monkey patching in Python?

Monkey patching refers to modifying or extending the behavior of libraries or classes at runtime without altering the original code.


How does the map function work in Python?

The map function applies a given function to each item of an iterable (e.g., list), returning a map object which can be converted to a list for results.

 def square(num):
    return num ** 2
nums = [1, 2, 3, 4]
squared = map(square, nums)


Describe the difference between @classmethod, @staticmethod, and instance methods.

@classmethod takes the class as an implicit first argument and acts on it, @staticmethod doesn’t take any implicit first arguments and thus behaves like a regular function defined inside a class, while instance methods take the instance as the first argument (self) and act upon instance variables.


Can you explain what list slicing is?

List slicing is a method for extracting specific portions of a list by defining a start and end index, and optionally a step: list[start:end:step].

 my_list = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
sliced = my_list[1:4]

Python Interview Tips

Understanding the Question

When faced with a tough interview question, pause briefly and make sure you fully comprehend the question. Don't hesitate to ask the interviewer to clarify or repeat the question if needed. It is crucial to give yourself a moment to gather your thoughts and understand the expectations. Break down complex questions into smaller parts that you can address one at a time. Make sure to address all parts of a multi-part question to demonstrate thorough understanding and attention to detail. Remember, clarity before solution.

Structured Approach

Employ a structured approach to your reasoning. Start by explaining the steps you would take to solve the problem before diving into the actual solution. This will show the interviewer that you are organized and thoughtful. If applicable, describe any relevant concepts or frameworks that you are using to tackle the problem. A clear structure in your response helps the interviewer follow your line of thought, leading to a better evaluation of your skills.

Be Honest and Open-Minded

If you encounter a question you are unsure about, be honest. It’s better to admit that you do not know the answer than to attempt to bluff your way through it. However, don’t just stop there - try to reason through the problem out loud. You can say something like 'I’m not familiar with that specific aspect, but based on what I know about X, I would approach it this way…' This shows that you possess critical thinking skills and are willing to learn, which are valuable assets in any workplace.

Use Examples When Possible

When explaining a complex topic or answer, provide examples to illustrate your point. This can be particularly useful when you need to demonstrate your knowledge in real-world scenarios. Share past experiences that are related to the question or create hypothetical situations that can explain your reasoning better. Examples help to concretize abstract concepts and showcase your ability to apply theoretical knowledge practically.

Stay Calm and Collected

Interviews can be stressful, but it is important to remain calm. If you feel nervous or flustered, take a deep breath to compose yourself. Speak clearly and at a moderate pace - rushing can make you seem less confident. If you do stumble on a question, don’t let that derail the entire interview. Acknowledge the mistake if necessary, and then move on to the next question confidently, keeping your composure.


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How much does a Python developer charge?

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