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30+ Java Spring Interview Questions And Answers

Java Spring is a powerful framework used for building web applications. It enables developers to create high-performing, easily testable, and reusable code. Java Spring simplifies the management of application data and states, while providing a robust platform for developing secure and scalable enterprise-level applications. This document includes a variety of Java Spring interview questions to help assess the skills of potential hires.


Most asked Java Spring interview questions



What is Spring Framework?

Spring Framework is a Java platform that provides comprehensive infrastructure support for developing Java applications. Spring handles the infrastructure so you can focus on your app.


Can you explain dependency injection and its types in Spring?

Dependency injection is a core concept of Spring and allows for loose coupling. There are two types: Constructor Injection and Setter Injection.


What do you understand by Spring Bean?

A Spring Bean is an object that is instantiated, assembled, and managed by Spring's IoC container. These Beans are at the core of the Spring Framework.


Explain the role of the @Autowired annotation.

The @Autowired annotation marks a constructor, field, or method as to be autowired by the Spring's dependency injection facilities.


What is the difference between @Controller and @RestController?

@Controller is used to mark a class as a web controller, capable of handling HTTP requests. @RestController combines @Controller and @ResponseBody, which eliminates the need to annotate every request handling method of the controller class with the @ResponseBody annotation.


Describe the difference between @GetMapping and @PostMapping.

@GetMapping is used to handle HTTP GET requests, while @PostMapping is used for handling HTTP POST requests.


What is the use of the @RequestMapping annotation?

@RequestMapping is used for mapping HTTP requests to handler methods of MVC and REST controllers in Spring.


What is a Spring MVC DispatcherServlet?

DispatcherServlet acts as the front controller for Spring MVC, dispatching requests to handlers, with configurable handler mappings, view resolution, locale and theme resolution.


Explain the Scopes of Spring Beans.

Spring Beans can have different scopes like: singleton, prototype, request, session, and global session.


What is aspect-oriented programming in Spring?

Aspect-oriented programming allows for separate concerns to be implemented in a modular fashion. Spring AOP modules provide interceptors to intercept an application.


Explain the concept of Spring JDBC.

Spring JDBC simplifies the use of JDBC and prevents common errors. It performs the core JDBC workflow, leaving application code to provide SQL and extract results.


Can you give an example of a JdbcTemplate?

int rowCount = this.jdbcTemplate.queryForObject(sql, Integer.class);

JdbcTemplate is a tool for simplifying database access and handling SQL queries. See the provided example for its usage.


What is spring boot?

Spring Boot makes it easy to create stand-alone, production-grade Spring-based applications.


What are Spring Boot Starters?

Starters are a set of convenient dependency descriptors that you can include in your application.


How does the @SpringBootApplication annotation work?

@SpringBootApplication is a combination of @Configuration, @EnableAutoConfiguration, and @ComponentScan annotations.

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Explain the 'inner bean' concept in Spring?

<!-- Definition for outer bean -->
<bean id="outerBean" class="OuterBeanClass">
  <property name="innerBean">
    <bean class="InnerBeanClass"/>

Inner beans are beans that are defined within the scope of another bean. They are only used as properties of the containing bean.


How do transactions work in Spring?

Transactions in Spring are managed with the help of a platform-agnostic abstraction layer. Spring provides a consistent transaction management interface.


Difference between BeanFactory and ApplicationContext?

BeanFactory is the basic container where Spring beans are defined and managed. In contrast, ApplicationContext includes all features of BeanFactory and provides more functionalities like event propagation, message resource handling, and AOP features.


What is a Spring Data Repository?

Spring Data Repository is an interface for generic CRUD operations on a repository of a specific type. It abstracts the data store interactions.


Can you explain the @Transactional annotation in Spring?

The @Transactional annotation indicates that a method or class should be executed in a transactional context.


What is the purpose of @EnableAspectJAutoProxy?

@EnableAspectJAutoProxy enables support for handling components marked with AspectJ's @Aspect annotation.


How can you create a custom starter in Spring Boot?

To create a custom starter, you need to define your starter with necessary dependencies and a configuration that provides a bean.


What is Spring Security and how it's used?

Spring Security is a framework for providing authentication, authorization, and protection against common attacks.


Explain the role of the @Async annotation.

@Async marks a method as a candidate for asynchronous execution. It can also be applied to a type, where all of the type's methods become asynchronous.


How do you handle exceptions in Spring MVC applications?

Exceptions in Spring MVC can be handled using the @ExceptionHandler annotation, @ControllerAdvice, or HandlerExceptionResolver interface.


What is JPA and how does it relate to Spring?

JPA, or Java Persistence API, is used for mapping Java objects to database tables. Spring Data JPA makes it easier to use JPA by reducing the amount of boilerplate code.


Explain the difference between @Query and @Modifying annotations in Spring Data JPA.

@Query is used to define a query for a method, while @Modifying is used on methods that modify data to clear the underlying persistence context.


Discuss the role of WebMvcConfigurer in Spring.

WebMvcConfigurer is an interface that can be implemented to setup your Spring MVC configuration like interceptors, formatters, view controllers etc.


What is Spring Integration?

Spring Integration provides an extension of the Spring programming model to support the well-known Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIP).


Describe Spring Batch and its use cases.

Spring Batch provides functions for processing large volumes of data, including logging/tracing, transaction management, job processing statistics, and resource management.


Java Spring Interview Tips

Understand the Basics

  • Gaining a firm grasp of foundational concepts is vital when preparing for technical interviews, particularly ones focused on Java Spring. Before getting into more complex scenarios, ensure that you have a complete understanding of Spring's core features, such as Dependency Injection, Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP), and the different types of Spring Beans. Solid knowledge of these basics is often assumed by the interviewer and you'll find it challenging to navigate through advanced topics without them.

Practice Coding

  • Comb through sample coding problems that involve implementing various features of Java Spring and practice writing out the code by hand. Understanding the syntax and knowing how to compose it without the help of an IDE can set you apart in a coding interview. Practice makes perfect, and the more fluent you are in coding, the more time you can spend on explaining your thought process instead of struggling with syntax errors.

Study Patterns and Best Practices

  • A firm understanding of design patterns and best practices in Spring is crucial, as many companies look for engineers who can write clean, maintainable code. Familiarize yourself with common patterns used in the framework, like Singleton, Factory, and Proxy. Be prepared to explain how these patterns are beneficial, and how you could implement them in your Spring applications.

Review the Documentation

  • Spring's official documentation is comprehensive and can be an excellent resource for reviewing different components of the framework. It can provide both detailed explanations and a quick reference for specific functionalities. Make sure to have gone through relevant parts of it, as it will help clarify any uncertainties that may arise during the interview.

Revise Common Topics Covered in Interviews

  • Ensure you're comfortable with common topics covered in Java Spring interviews, such as transaction management, RESTful web services, Security with Spring, and working with databases using Spring Data. Understanding how these parts fit into enterprise application development could be crucial in passing the interview.


How much does it cost to hire a Java developer?

The cost to hire a Java developer starts from $45/hour at FireHire, with the final rate depending on experience level and project complexity. Read more: How much does it cost to hire a Java developer?

Is Spring developer in demand?

Yes, Spring developers are highly sought-after for their ability to handle complex back-end ecosystems and create high-performing applications. Read more: Is Spring developer in demand?

What is the salary of Java spring boot developer?

Salaries for Java Spring Boot developers vary widely based on location and experience, but partnering with FireHire offers competitive rates tailored to your project's budget. Read more: What is the salary of Java spring boot developer?

Why using FireHire for hiring Java Spring developers is the best choice?

Opt for FireHire to leverage pre-vetted senior talent, risk-free hiring with a 30-day replacement guarantee, and comprehensive tech expertise, ensuring your Java Spring Back-End development needs are met with the utmost efficiency.

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